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Botanic Garden > Garden Articles > Tree > Hardwood Trees

Hardwood Trees

2016/8/8 18:05:37
Angiosperm trees which provide us with hardwood are categorized as hardwood trees. The following article lists out the trees from this category, and presents information on some important ones.

The hardwood trees are characterized by the quality of producing high density wood. Features like broad leaves and the production of nuts/fruits are also observed. Most of them being deciduous in nature, they become dormant in the winter season. Some of the popular ones are the oak, walnut, hickory, maple, etc. Amongst the tropical ones, mahogany, teak, ebony, and luan, are the important ones. Holm oak, boxwood, holly, etc., are some of the European ones, and are evergreen in nature. In Florida, the Florida Clover Ash is a significant. Wood obtained from these trees can be used in making furniture items, for house construction, and also in mold-making. They are known to produce good amount of shade, and are also quite resistant to damage resulting from wind.

Some Important Hardwood Trees

Oak: Belonging to the northern hemisphere, this plant has, in all, 600 species. The different types of oak include both, evergreen and deciduous trees. Their eaves have lobed margins, and are spirally arranged. Oakwood is known for its hardness and strength. Its density is 0.75 g/cubic cm. Its high tannin content makes it resistant to fungal and insect attacks.

Hickory: This is a group of hardwood plants, belonging to the genus, Carya. Out of 18 species, 15 originate in the eastern region of North America, and 3 belong to Asia. Hickory trees grow up to the height of 100 feet. Pecan is one of the valuable hickory species, and produces light-colored wood. Nuts produced by hickory are flavorful.

Mahogany: This is a tropical, evergreen type, which produces white flowers in clusters. The wood obtained from mahogany turns reddish brown in color, upon reaching maturity. It has a straight-grained pattern, and doesn't have pockets or voids. It is considered highly durable.

Teak: The teak is native to countries from south and south-east Asia. Its height ranges from 90-120 feet. Wood obtained from this tree is used for making window frames and doors in countries like India. The wood from mature teak trees brings high price, and its specialty is that it resists termite attacks.

Empress Tree: Being originally from China and Japan, the empress tree was imported to the United States. Scientifically known as Paulownia tomentosa, it reaches an average height of 50 feet. This is a hardy plant, and therefore, requires very less attention. It can, therefore, be used in landscaping. Wood obtained from this tree is used in Oriental furniture, and therefore, the production of this plant has become economically viable.

Silver Maple: The dense and quick root growth causes this tree to grow at a faster rate. It can reach a height between 80-100 feet, and can be found in eastern regions of the United States. It is necessary to prune this tree, in order to control its vigorous growth.

Black Walnut: This fast-growing hardwood tree produces wood that is straight-grained and fine. A mature black walnut tree can reach a height of more than 100 feet. Creating veneer surfaces is a common use that its wood is put to. One of its special characteristics is that a chemical called juglone is present in its trunk, leaves, roots, and trunk husks. This chemical inhibits the growth of other plants growing in the vicinity.

List of Other Hardwood Trees
The following list contains names of few important trees, not included in the paragraphs above.
♣ American Beech
♣ American Hornbeam
♣ Autumn Purple Ash
♣ Black Locust
♣ Black Cherry
♣ Black Willow
♣ Blue Ash
♣ Cacao
♣ Camphor Tree
♣ Canadian Serviceberry
♣ Canistel
♣ Carolina Ash
♣ Chinese Banyan
♣ Coastal Sandalwood
♣ Common Hackberry
♣ Cootamundra Wattle
♣ Crimean Linden
♣ Date Palm
♣ Devilwood
♣ Eben Tree
♣ Eucalyptus
♣ Firetree
♣ Florida Clover Ash
♣ Ginkgo
♣ Grapefruit
♣ Grumichama
♣ Japanese Angelica Tree
♣ Jarrah
♣ Katsure Tree
♣ Kiawe
♣ Klamath Plum
♣ Koa
♣ Lama
♣ Lata
♣ Lemon
♣ Limeberry
♣ Longan
♣ Lucuma
♣ Lychee
♣ Magnolia Tree
♣ Mangosteen
♣ Mangrove
♣ Melaleuca
♣ Mimosa
♣ Mulga

Hardwood is used for a number of applications like manufacturing charcoal, construction, making musical instruments, cooking, etc. However, due to over-exploitation, quite a few species of the teak, mahogany, and other hardwood trees, have become scarce.

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